The inability of a female human body to undergo the natural process of conceiving and live child birth even after sexual intercourse without the use of contraceptives for over a year is termed as Female Infertility. It has been observed that the age factor and current lifestyle changes and lifestyle choices are the common reasons reported for infertility. However, they are not the only reasons that cause infertility in females. Study suggests that the rate of female infertility increases as the age of a female human body increases. This reduces the chances of conceiving and increases the rate of infertility.
As mentioned earlier, age and lifestyle are not the only factors that cause infertility in females. There can be acquired or genetic factors involved. The acquired factors that cause or increase the rate of female fertility are age, body weight issues (underweight or overweight), smoking habits, sexually transmitted infections etc. A female human body is at the peak of its fertility around 25 years of age. Post that, the rate of fertility decreases. The decrease may be slow or drastic depending on various factors. Most cases have shown increase in female infertility post the age of 35 years; that is before menopause that generally occurs between 40 to 50 years of age. Inappropriate body weight also leads to a rise in the rate of infertility in females. The primary female sex organ produces estrogen and so do fat cells. An increase in the estrogen levels in a female body makes the body behave like it is on birth control and that reduces the chances of getting pregnant. In the case of an underweight female, the body produces lesser amounts of estrogen and that leads to irregular menstrual cycles. Smoking, tobacco; be it active or passive, increases the rate of infertility in a female human body as it affects all the stages of reproduction. It increases the risk of miscarriages as the harmful chemicals in cigarettes interfere with processes such as ovulation, embryo transport etc. increasing the chances of complications during pregnancy, sub-fertility, infertility and more so lead to early menopause. It also causes low birth weight and birth defects in new born babies.
Sexually transmitted infections, most of the times, show no symptoms. Hence the cause may not be identified at its early stages due to which there is a greater risk of passing the disease down to others. Females that have acquired sexually transmitted infections before or during pregnancy may experience complications and/ or may be diagnosed with infertility.
Genetic factors for infertility could be primary amenorrhea wherein the female body never undergoes menstrual cycles due to congenital absence of the uterus or secondary amenorrhea wherein the menstrual cycle has stopped for about three months in females with regular cycles and for nine months in the case of irregular menstruation. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) may also be one of the reasons wherein due to an imbalance in hormones, the ovaries do not or fail to release eggs. Presence of mutation genes in the female body may also be a cause of infertility.
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